Broken Meaning

Aston kamunde


The night sounds were returning tentatively,
And blackness lay behind the moon and the stars,
The air carried a subtle new energy,
Of a ghost town endowed with haunted love

The shadows of oak trees steadily inked towards the night whispers,
They seemed as though they were weary from heavy sympathy,
It seemed as though there was light in darkness,
It was a false but a welcome assumption to safety

Along the long lonely road lay a dark creature,
It was a beetle that was laying on its back struggling for dear life,
As ants relentlessly and mercilessly sucked from its leakage
Then a rat suddenly scarred up the bole of unseen phoenix palm,

Skepticism crept over the now brooding silence,
In the dark, deep, direct shadows that lurked in every corner,
It was a meaningless and dark-comic nature of life,
As today won’t hold any meaning that can change…

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Angel with the Broken Wings

Aston kamunde


When I saw her at first, my gaze was more steadier and focused on her eyes,
Her eyes seemed both sharp and beautiful, like an animal from the wild,
I saw refinement and also hurt in those eyes, which shone under the clear moon,
But desperate terror seemed to overwhelm them as if she was in pain

Steely eyed, she glared at me with intense pain as if to plea with me,
I saw spasms rippling through her entire body as she wept silently,
I held out my hand ready and willing to seize the moment and just hold her,
But sobbing, she faded into the specter as transparently as gauze

She had traversed many centuries and many histories to come searching,
The day she arrived, the sky was gray with fine mists sitting through the clouds,
Standing stonily, the frail shadows closed on her as an ocean to a…

View original post 153 more words

Wry Dry Day

Aston kamunde

Emoly Carr's Painting

She felt like her whole existence was drifting away just like time,
Grief had revisited and shaken the depth of her being,
Fun had eluded her and only left dark emptiness,
A blackened hole that would suck her up and destroy her

Every iota of her emotion was greater than her expectations
All her dreams seemed to be clouded by sounds of wings,
The welcome and goodbye sounds,
Left her lonely and desperate face colored by poverty of a smile

The splendor of sunlight and the sky,
Seemed to play a complete contrasting rhythm from her feelings,
The sun spilled a low orange candle across the sky,
Its warmth was an intoxicating fleeting feeling that inspired a smile, small but smile still

A faint glow started forming in her rejected lonely heart,
It slowly became a healer to her broken heart,
There is always a fragile peace after shattering chaos,

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Whirling Gusts


As I hugged the unusual, empty, snaking road,

I was well aware of the invincible presence,

A whoring evil presence… staring…hating,

Line of unsettled faces souring with loath


Sometimes I felt naked under their invincible gawk,

Overwhelmed with the stench of everlasting exhaustion,

But the feeling also filled my soul with a sickly sweet anticipation,

Of fate, luck or even unluck


The growing wind carried a myriad of strange dialects,

They were hissing sounds with undercurrents of fury,

What’s wrong with leading my life? Owning my life?

Doing what I want, where I want and how I want it!


I struggled to keep all obscenity well hidden in my heart,

Feeling the joy and the hurt of it too,

It attracted a strange and a curiously exciting feeling,

It felt unearthly, delectable, sweet and satisfying


I got distracted by a lone spidery purple flower,

It was neither pleasant nor unpleasant,

The flower carried neither any perfume nor odor,

Fire from the sky sent red hot winds along its path


They hissed violence that equaled the thumping of my chest,

They came from the sky of death to life,

They multiplied like maggots in a corpse,

Were they winds of change or of a new assurance?


Everything and everyone was battered down,

Consumed by self-fed agony,

Except for the lonely purple flower,

That huddled defensefully deep in the loose soil…







Delicious Death Moan

Aston kamunde


I wish I could turn myself into a stone,

To escape the sharp edged feelings that cut thru’

With so much horror that numbs me again and again,

In a world that has suddenly tuned chaotic and insane

In vain I try to take and hold deep breaths to imagine,

A beauty that is colored by all things that really matter,

The simple, self-effacing life away from structured surrounding,

But the reality of it all could be further away from nightmare

While I cloak all this profound reality in my poetry,

I do it with a grave heart hyperaware of any gale,

Inspiration has seized me mixed with animal power and fear,

As I inhibit this air and silence that stretches to infinity

The world torments the innocent with cruel pleasure in her eyes,

Uglying glowing flesh that once basked in the sun,

Splitting it apart so perfectly with a…

View original post 71 more words

My Darkened Peace

Aston kamunde


The vague leaf shadows trembled in the darkened night,
The sky appeared to be plain as if dead,
The silvered moon had become a broadsword stiletto,
Beneath the blinding darkened clouds that seemed sluggish

The air around me nearly suffocated me with a stench of fear,
The rhythm of the night reducing to a whisper, then silence
The abnormal shadows stood all around me like mourners,
Guiding every pace that I made as if escorting a sinful soul

I remained hush in the pool of silence and blackness,
My heart running, fast, then relaxed as if drained,
I knew I had to make peace with my blackened hole,
Darkness was fading all sounds of misery like a pale vision of a moment,

Brief twists of cold breezes flowed softly but cold like a sad song,
But I submitted to the invitation with a palpable pleasure,
This night was charming, dark…

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Ethical Climate in Business Environment


The concept of ethical climate has been a significant research topic for over thirty years. This concept is defined as the shared perceptions within a business environment of what is regarded to be an ethically right behavior and how an organization should deal with ethical issues (Kreitner&Kinicki, 2014). In large extent, it emerges from processes within an organization, which transmit expectations of the management as far as moral processes and behaviors are concerned. These moral processes and behaviors are significantly important as they are used to solve ethical challenges. In addition, they carry a decisive influence over behaviors and attitudes of all stakeholders in any given organization(Kreitner&Kinicki, 2014).

Importance of Ethical Climate in an Organization

Ethical climate serves as a perceptual lens that sustains business managers in the process of identifying ethical issues and solving themCoady& Corry, 2013). The theory of ethical climate is characterized in the field of recent works regarding the concept of ethics as a significant element of the median theory, which belong to a series of integrated perspectives on ethics. In this particular phenomenon, two most predominant distinctive theories that have developed a catalysts for research studies are work climate theory and moral philosophy theories (Coady& Corry, 2013).

Moral philosophy theories are utilized during the process of evaluating or assessing grids regarding moral aspects of management actions as well as their practices(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). These constitute deontological and utilitarian theories, where the latter assesses ethical characters regarding an action on the basis of generated consequences. On the other hand, the former tends to offer judgments on various ethical dimensions regarding a single act in relation to predefined to specific standards, which are universally recognized(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014).

In addition, organizational climate approach is important as it serves as an essential theoretical basis for research studies focusing on ethical work climate. In this context, such an approach makes an effort to explain organizational stakeholders’ ethical behavior(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). This is not only individualized kinds of motivations but also by way of identifying the impacts of organizational context and ethical behaviors in the process of understanding conducts of an individual ethics. It is imperative to note that ethical work climate essentially reflects practices, policies as well as procedures of a specific organization, usually with moral consequences(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). In this respect, several models focusing on ethical climate have emerged through literature. Each of these models provides several methods of understanding the particular facets of this construct.

One dimension regarding ethical criterion refers to the dominating moral philosophy that is vital during decision making processes with any business environment(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). This specific dimension constitutes three main criteria, which are aligned closely with other three major classifications of ethical theories. These ethical theories are mainly deontology, egoism as well as utilitarianism(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014).  Locus of analysis is yet another dimension, which is obtained from the theory of sociology on the reference group. This theory tends to reflect three main levels regarding ethical concerns for business as far as organizational, individual and cosmopolitan levels are concerned.

Ethical climate is regarded as a mechanism of true social capital, good governance or a coordination mechanism(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). In this respect, the concept of trust within any organizational environment is increasingly becoming a topic of focus in several empirical and theoretical research studies. This plethora of work is mainly accompanied by several typologies and conceptualizations. Most typologies focusing on the concept of trust in any business environment tend to lay emphasize on institutional and interpersonal dimensions regarding this particular phenomenon(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014).

For instance, at interpersonal level, trust is assumed to be a psychological condition, which constitutes acceptance of any individual who trusts. In this regard, such an individual is assumed to be vulnerable to any acts performed by the other party, who is the trustee. Such kind of vulnerability is founded on several expectations associated to behaviors or intentions of the trustee(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). Several researchers have attempted to make progress in the consolidation of such expectations. Through these, they have suggested for an integrated model of trust, which involve three main categories namely; benevolence, ability as well as integrity(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). In this context, ability refers to a series of an individual’s skills that makes him or her efficient and reliable in a specific area. On the other hand, benevolence is one and the same with a commitment seeking to protect and support the interests and rights of others as a consequence of emotional attachment. Integrity refers to a situation where individuals are held by the belief that other individuals would retain and maintain a set of principles, which are perceived to be acceptable(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014).

Ethical Dilemma in an Organization

The core objective of any business organization is to have high performance with the objective of not only surviving in a highly competitive business environment but also to increase revenues and profit. In the recent past, my company faced significant challenges brought about by low sales, harsh business environment and high inflation rate. As a result, the management was faced with an ethical dilemma of downsizing many employees as it was not sustainable in regards to disbursing salaries and wages. This was a critical decision, which had to be made regardless of prevailing business climate. However, such a decision was not received well by many employees who felt that the company was not showing a caring climate considering the fact they did not have alternative sources of income after getting discharged from their jobs.

Ethical business climate involves several element that characterize a socially responsive business environment. Such a business environment is expected to offer organizational listening capabilities, support, interest demonstration, perceived fairness. All these are significant elements, which reveals the significance of relational ethics as a form of shared value that is deeply rooted in the organizational culture(Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014). For instance, employees working in my company realized that they were working in an organizational climate that sets them outside the administration’s concerns. Moreover, they realized that the company was not listening to them neither did it attempt to intervene by providing support or in their private or professional lives.

As a business manager I would have adopted the principle of benevolence, which seeks to protect the rights of others. This is because most employees regard their companies as their families or homes, a sense of feeling that was particularly present in my human sized company. This is normally characterized by hierarchical distances, which are narrow and that operates in a protective and paternalistic style (Stanwick&Stanwick, 2014).


It is worth to note that the notion of shared perceptions that are linked with the definition of ethical climate provides this particular concept an aspect that is subjective. To a large extent, the presence of this kind of ethical climate may only be confirmed when a unit or stakeholders within the business environment assume that specific forms of behaviors as well as ethical reasoning dominates the entire functioning of a shared system.


















Coady, D., & Corry, R. (2013). The climate change debate: An epistemic and ethical enquiry.

Stanwick, P. A., &Stanwick, S. D. (2014). Understanding business ethics.


Kreitner, R., &Kinicki, A. (2014). Organizational behavior and ethical leadership. NY: McGraw-Hill.



Smartphone Addiction


In the recent past individuals across the globe are increasingly becoming dependent on their smartphones (Akhtar, 2011). However, majority would never agree that they are actually addicted to their smartphones. Such exists despite the prevailing reality that Smartphone addiction is real and is quickly becoming a major problem, which is affecting majority of individuals around the world. Recent statistics indicate that one in every ten users of smartphones have admitted to having used their smartphones during conversations, shower or when attending important meetings (Akhtar, 2011). These statistics have also shown that some people often fail to control their habits of using smartphones when engaging in life threatening activities such as driving (Allen, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 2007).

Required Media Report

Statistics indicate that Smartphone addicts, either are married or are courting, one partner is more likely to carry his or her smartphone to the bedroom. The problem is made worse by the fact that such individuals have a tendency of using their Smartphone during intimate moments. Thus, the other partner eventually gets negatively affected in the processes as far as emotions are concerned. In this respect, such an individual does not understand about his or her partner’s Smartphone addictive problem as the existence of problem has not yet been fully embraced or accepted by the society. Most individuals mainly associate addictive problems with drugs or other stimulants but tend to ignore sources of entertainment such as technological devices that are mainly used for communication, playing games, or even accessing music or videos.

Nevertheless, the habit of overusing smartphones is such a manner has been proved to be the main reason why many users find it challenging to function well without having their smartphones by their side.  According to recent survey including research studies aimed at establishing the degree of smart phone addiction, more than 72% respondents indicated that they rarely place their phones five feet from where they are positioned at any given time; either during the day or at night sociologists and psychologists term this condition as nomophobia. Nomophobia, is essentially an abbreviation that means that ‘no mobile phobia. It is fear experienced by individuals when they are too far from their phones. The fear stems from the fact that individuals feel that they are disconnected from the rest of the world. Today, all popular news platforms offer consumers with an easy way of accessing current affairs as they happen. Despite of geographic locations, one is able to access or even make contributions regarding important issues. Moreover, a Smartphone enables an individual to engage in discussions by making personal contributions or even share information with the rest of the world, at the palm of their hands.

Today, several mobile providers are increasingly heightening the level of existing competition in this highly demanding business environment. As such, technological advancement in various devices and connectivity allows them to improve several elements of their services or products such as internet speed. As a result, access towards internet is basically achieved by many people due to reduced prices in a tough yet highly profitable mobile industry. Thus, internet coupled with its innovations has made significant contributions as far as Smartphone addiction is concerned.

Very interestingly, the aspect or situations where individuals find that they lack any phone connection, is well thought-out as social in nature by sociologists or psychologists. However, today, individuals who lack smartphone regard themselves as having lacking any social life. The main reason being, that owning a phone naturally connects an individual to friends, family and the rest of the world. In other words, psychologists suggest that it is more important finding out what is happening to people who are close by actually demonstrating love and care. Such claims may be demonstrated by being physically present rather than by way of texting or calling through a phone. As such, lacking a phone occasionally is an essential human activity that has the tendency of improving people’s social skills.

Literature Review

Smartphones have become a crucial part of individuals due to the functions that perfumed through their phones (Allen et al., 2007). This is mainly because Smartphone offers individuals with the ability of connecting with families, loved ones and friends. In addition, one is able to access news easily and much faster without having to hustle much (Plant & Plant, 2008). Entertainment is one major source of addiction, particularly to the younger individuals who spend long hours during each day playing games or watching movies through their smartphones whenever they may be. This technological gadget is small and hence, portable, making it possible for individuals to carry it everywhere (Allen et al., 2007). Today, major news outlets such as CNN, have established their websites, which can accessed by anybody with just a click of the button. This includes entertainment websites such as Number Direct that easily lets individuals view and access content just by tapping their touch screen (Roy, 1999). Essentially, smartphones have become critical aspects of peoples’ everyday lives.

Online Compulsions that drives Smartphone addicted individuals to engage in gambling, gaming, bidding in auction sites, online shopping, stock trading frequently lead to job related issues or financial problems (Akhtar, 2011). Addictive problems such as gambling have been documented for several years and this problem has been heightened by internet accessibility into various gambling sites. Online shopping or stock trading has been seen to result in social and financial problems by various research studies (Akhtar, 2011).

Information overload often leads to lower productivity at various aspects of an individual life such as school or work (Akhtar, 2011). Compulsive behavior of playing games, web surfing, checking news feeds, watching videos or searching Google makes individuals to isolate themselves from other people for many hours. Compulsive use of Smartphone Apps including the internet cause addicts to neglect important aspects of their lives such as work, school or families (Roberts, 2016). In addition, such individuals often find themselves isolated from their social pursuits, real-world relationships as well as from their hobbies.

Cybersex addiction is directly related to Smartphone addiction whereby individuals use adult chat rooms, pornography, nude swapping or messaging services, including compulsive behavior of sexting (Roberts, 2016). These online or internet related activities carry a negative impact towards an individual’s overall emotional health as well as their real-life intimidate relationships. While sexual addiction includes cybersex and pornography addictions, such, are made more accessible by availability of internet. These addictions have been made to be very convenient in addition to the fact that they are relatively anonymous (Roberts, 2016). Today, sex addicts find it easy to spend many private hours using their tablets or Smartphones, where, they engage in fantasies, which have been proven to be impossible in real life. Moreover, Smartphones essentially enhances casual sex where victims engage in excessive use of dating apps and use of sex (Roberts, 2016). Consequently, such individuals find it challenging to establish any long-term intimate relationship or may even end an existing relationship.

Traditionally, such impulses were experienced through availability of desktop computers or a laptop. However, today, Smartphones have made it more convenient due to their size as individuals are able to carry them anywhere so that they can gratify their addictions or compulsions (Roberts, 2016). Most people have admittedly confirmed that they have used their Smartphones either during religious services, in theaters, in the shower, during business meetings, while driving, during sex or even during their children’s performances in school.

The internet, Smartphones or tablets are normally addictive due to the fact that their specific use is capable of triggering the human brain to release chemical dopamine (Roberts, 2016). The release of chemical dopamine has the same ending effects like those that often results from other addictions such as alcohol and drugs addiction. An individual’s mood is frequently altered as addiction to Smartphones results in an overall impact to the brain (Roberts, 2016). Moreover, Smartphone addicts are able to develop tolerance just like in other drug addictions, whereby, individuals spend longer hours on their screens so as to derive the same pleasurable rewards.

A research study carried in the United Kingdom established that Smartphone addiction enhances self-absorption (Roberts, 2016). In this regard, individuals who tend to spend longer hours in social media sites have an increased chance of displaying negative personality traits for example, they are often narcissists (Roberts, 2016). Smartphone addicts frequently snap endless selfies, which are posted in social media sites, accompanied with particular details regarding their personal lives. As a result, they become excessively self-centered, which is unhealthy. Smartphone addicts tend to make it particularly challenging to cope with personal stress because they often distance themselves from real-life relationships (Roberts, 2016).

DSM criteria for Substance use Disorders

Smartphone addiction is causing many other social problems such as isolating the victims from their families, loved ones or friends (Schaefer, 2008). This is due to the fact that smartphone addicts spend longer hours with their smartphones as compared to being physically present to assist or improve their social skills that exists naturally with human beings. As opposed to this healthy social skills, smartphone addict prefer communicating to people who are close to them through texting, video or voice calls (Einhorn & Borgions, 2015). This means that eventually, they get isolated from the physical environment and totally rely on the functions provided by their smartphones (Rozman & Korea Economic Institute (U.S.), 2015). This proves why more than seventy percent participants during a recent survey indicated that they are rarely five feet away from their phones. Meaning, that such individuals use their smartphones during majority of their daily time or schedules are higher (Duck, 2007).

Therefore, it is plausible to state that human beings have the ability of abusing anything; smartphones notwithstanding (Galstian, 2014). While the world is busy dealing with drug abuse among young people, smartphone addition is quickly but silently encroaching the social aspects of human life. Currently, the most popular culture is one that is seen to be tech hungry and tech savvy (Fazlagić & Erkol, 2016). The more any culture is seen to be tech savvy, the more it is seen to be capable of performing highly complex tasks easily. From a global perspective, many states are dealing with drug addiction problems by way of establishing regulatory policies such as ‘no smoking zones’ (Czarnowski, Howlett & Jain, 2017). The problems and challenges brought about by smartphone addiction are gaining momentum each day and in fact; many institutions have already started establishing mobile related signs such as ‘This is a mobile free zone’ or ‘Do not use your phone’ (Frank, 2013).

Contributing Factors to Smartphone Addiction

While that is not enough, important relationships such as those that are family based are increasingly affected by the prevailing condition of smartphone addiction (Benyoucef et al., 2015). Typically, families used to interact more effectively during private settings such as at their dinner tables. This tradition or culture where all family members used to meet and interact physically is hampered by smartphone addiction (Wei, 2007). In this regard, certain family members frequently keep checking their smartphones mainly for updates, emails, texts as well as tweets. Such negative norms have been widely accepted and have also generated conflicts within some families (Benyoucef et al., 2015).

As if that was not enough, leisure activities such as going to the movies or theaters are always interrupted by an individual(s) who is oblivious of his or her addiction problem and thus, keep multi-tasking while at the same time watching movies (Roberts, 2016). While in the past, individuals used to excuse themselves to go to the washrooms, today such a habit has become obsolete. As almost every person is accepting the habit of smartphone use during such events or undertakings. More important to note is the fact that relationships are getting impacted by this prevailing problem as many couples are increasingly getting separated (Bridgman & Streeter, 2000).

Statistics in Smartphone Addiction

A very recent research study released their findings, which suggested that one in every ten individuals who are in a relationship, have a tendency of using their phone while engaging in an intimate moment with their partners (Chen, Kumar, Kinshuk, Huang, & Kong, 2015). The problem is worsened in younger people aged between eighteen and thirty four years, in which case, one in every five individuals use their phone during intimate moments with their partner (Nour, D., Freeway Guides, Inc, Playaway Digital Audio, Findaway World, & LLC, 2008). However, it is important to understand that there are other sensitive human lives, which are increasingly affected by smartphone intrusion and they may include; sacred or private moments (Nutt & Nestor, 2014).

A recent survey conducted by Mobile Consumer habits indicated that 12% of smartphone users carry and use their smartphones during shower. Conducted in 2013, this worrying statistics have doubled due to technological advancements as well as the prestige that is obtained from using mobile devices that are more advanced in the market. Today, statistics indicate that slightly above 50% of smartphone addicts, use their smartphones while driving. Compulsive Smartphone use adds towards the number of accident incidences experienced each year (Chen et al., 2015). More importantly to note is the fact that using smartphones for functions such as texting while driving, is six times more dangerous as compared to driving while drunk (Nakaya, 2017).

Comparison with other Addictions

One can relate such development by other common addictive problems such as cigarette smoking (Gifford, 2013). Cigarette smoking has encountered higher hostility from the health related groups or the public. Such hostilities were initiated by development of smoke-free zones, which were popping up in many public settings such as restaurants, hospitals, fuel stations as ell as during flights (Chang & Li, 2015). The free zone culture began spreading to many other sectors or settings, forcing smoke addicts to look up for such signs in an effort of avoiding fines or other types of legal issues. Smartphone addiction is similar to other types of addictions such as smoking, however, the magnitude of its impacts is extensive as compared to other addictions (Guerin, 2017).

Smartphone addicts have a tendency of using their smartphones while someone important is physically communicating to them (Hanley, Christensen, Darcey, Ramkumar, Strahan & Torbit, 2009). The prevalence rate is higher among young people or adolescence who are ever texting while their parents are communicating to them. Therefore, it is for this reason that several establishments such as schools have set up “No Cell Phone Use” (Haugen & Musser, 2013). In fact, this developing culture is quite common in many establishments, meaning that there is high likelihood that people have begun identifying smartphone addiction problems and the ensuing impacts.

Comparison and Critique of Reported Characteristics of Smartphone use Addiction

In this age, there are essentially four reasons that individuals provide for their state of disconnection; either, the individual’s smartphone has low battery, forgot his or her phone, lack of minutes or the worst of it is losing a device. Such claims explain the development of nomophobia, which is increasingly engulfing majority of smartphone users. Such a problem does not only exist in the United States but also in other countries around the globe. A more recent research study conducted by Versapak in Britain, indicated that 41% of smartphone users often got anxious coupled by a feeling of not being in control whenever they are separated from their tablets or smartphones. Additionally, about fifty one percent of respondents during the survey admitted that they frequently suffered from extreme technological anxiety many times a day.

Therefore, this argument essentially means that separating smartphone users from their phones is an extremely nerve-wracking feeling, which often affects a person’s state of wellbeing.  Being disconnected from technology is surprisingly stressful. There’s often a feeling of missing out, as we worry about what’s going on without our knowledge. Based to another study undertook by yet another research company, seventy percent of females have phone separation anxiety as opposed to sixty one percent of males. Therefore, there is an existing doubt that individuals are going to see this phobia in the DSM anytime soon, however the anxiety associated on smartphones use or lack thereof, has been established to be very real. Individuals tend to make an allowance for using their smartphone as opposed to creating tie for their best are friends or even their soul mate. So the loss of one’s smartphone can be associated or linked to losing a best friend.

In addition, many individuals have developed anxiety issues from their smartphone addiction. The anxiety is developed by fear that they might lose their smartphones in any given time even for few seconds. In this regard, it is imperative to note that today, many relationships are developed and maintained through smartphone use. Such relationships are also ended by a sending a text message or images to the receiver.  Furthermore, important institutions such as in finance, have developed their websites, which allow their consumers or potential customers easily access their services. Thus, one is able to do personal transactions using smartphones, which also, retain important financial information of smartphone users. Individuals are able to conduct all these important functions or duties right from the palm of their hands, irrespective of their location or geographical positions.


Although smartphone addition has proven to be an enormous problem, there are clear indications that such problems are more likely to increase at a fast rate. This is as demonstrated by the increased demand coupled with easy access to smartphones. Moreover, the situation is heightened by the rapid advances in technology that focuses on making smartphones perform wide variety of functions at a fast speed. This becomes a big relief particularly in the modern world that is characterized by individuals who are multitasking many activities in their daily living such as school, career, family and personal matters. In this regard, smartphones tend to relieve them the need of attending certain duties as they can easily conduct them through their smartphones at the comfort of their homes such as attending meetings or school lectures, shopping or having to visit their loved ones.












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